Evolution of computers
Why is it necessary to discuss the past in the history of Computers..?
There are three reasons it is very necessary to discuss the past
- Because in the sequence of any innovation has some similarities of the previously developed. Every milestone has very much part of the previously developed product.
- Scientist or innovators have some kind of mistakes during the research so we have to aware of these mistakes.
- Sometimes we have ideas in mind and do not know that it was yet created or not. So by reading the past, we have known about this that it is developed or not.
Here I will explain the complete evolution of computers that how was the world’s first computer and how we are able to get hand held computer nowadays.
History or evolution of computers since 1833 to till now.
1833 – Analytical Engine:
In 1833, Charles Babbage ( the Very famous mathematician of that era in Cambridge University) design a first digital mechanical general purpose computer named as analytical engine due to this great innovation of Babbage, He is known as the father of Computer. But in those days there was no high technology exists in those days that can implement the Charles Babbage design. Charles Babbage was the great researcher and he has not enough money that it can research and implement his design. For this purpose, he with his intelligent and famous student Ada the Countess for lovelies (She was the very famous student of Charles Babbage in mathematics and she writes the first computer program for Babbage’s Digital computer) both decide a plan to earn money. They work for the computing schemes and idea was that they will sell it to the peoples and earn money in this way and they could research easily but an idea has flopped and they lose each and everything due to the cleverness of the Charles Babbage.evolution of computers
1801 – Innovation of Punched Cards:
evolution of computers In 1801 Joseph Marie innovates the punch cards and they are just used in textile mills for a loom. There was no link between punch cards and the computing, later on, they were being introduced in computing for storage of data. The innovation of punched cards was very strange when he introduced punched cards then it should have to face many problems because firstly peoples worked in textile mills to loom the cotton after that punched cards were being used for that purpose. So textiles mills get out the number of peoples from industry.
1904 – Innovation of Vacuum tubes:
evolution of computers In 1904 Vacuum tubes was invented by an English Physicist John Fleming. Later on, they are replaced by the transistors.
1936 – Turing Machine:
Alan Turing of Cambridge University presented an idea of a theoretically simplified but fully capable computer now known as “Turing Machine”.“evolution of computers”
A test proposed to determine that if a computer has the ability to think.
1939 – ABC Computer:
In 1939, ABC computer was developed by John Atanasoff (was the professor) and Clifford Berry (was his assistant). That was the first electronic digital computer based on vacuum tubes it was the great innovative event.
1943 – Harvard Mark 1:
In 1943, Harvard Mark 1 computer was developed by Harvard at Harvard University based on the ideas given by the Charles Babbage but now he was late because this idea based on Punched cards and the computer was the mechanical computer but now the idea of vacuum tubes was being introduced that perform the calculations very fast.evolution of computers
1946 – Invention of ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer):
It was the world’s large scale general purpose electronic digital computer built by John Mauchly and John Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania. It was a huge consist of 19000 vacuum tubes, covering the space 9 feet / 80 feet. It used 150kw power and weighed 30 ton. All the lights of the city were dim when it is turned on.
1947 – Innovation of Transistor:
In 1947, Shockley Bardeen & Brattain invented the transistor at the bell labs in the US.
Transistor benefits over vacuum tubes:
- They were smaller in size than vacuum tubes.
- They were more reliable than vacuum tubes.
- Their rate of power consumption was very low than vacuum tubes.
- They are less costly than vacuum tubes.
1950 – Innovation of Floppy Disk:
In 1950, Floppy disk was invented for storage by Yoshiro Nakamats as Imperial University. They give it to the IBM and they introduced it in their computers.
1951 – Innovation of UNIVAC 1:
evolution of computers In 1951, UNIVAC 1 (Universal Automatic Computer) computer was developed by John Mauchly and John Eckert Computer Company. Before this all the computer were built for special purposes it was the first large scale general purpose Electronic Digital computer.
Note: This computer was not more powerful than ENIAC but more reliable than ENIAC.
1952 – Development of Compiler:
In 1952, Grace Hopper make the first compiler it was just like the computer program but its benefits were that it translates the whole computer program written in the high level language to low-level language. In this way to write and read the program become very simple.evolution of computers
1969 – Development of ARPANET:
It was developed for US DoD advanced research projects agency.
About 6000 computers connected for communication among research organizations and universities by using this network. This idea was being very helpful in the innovation of Internet.evolution of computers
1971 – Innovation of Microprocessor:
In 1971, microprocessor Intel was invented by Ted Hoff at Intel name as Intel 4004.
It consists of 25000 transistors at that time now a day about millions of transistors are used in the microprocessor.
1975 – Development of Altair 8800 MITS (Micro Instruments Telemetry Systems):
The Category of Personal computer started from this computer it was the world’s first Personal Computer.
It contains the memory about 256 bytes million times smaller than now a day we are using. Visit also Lecture #1 Introduction to Computer and Short History of Computer
Although it consists of 8080 Microprocessor very primitive type of microprocessor it was fully functional. The input was given by using switches and the output displays under the light bulbs.evolution of computers
1976 – Cray 1, First Super Computer:
The computers built up to 1976 are built just for some special purposes like for military or for some special calculations but this was the great innovative event that that first general purpose commercial super computer was developed. Super computers are those that enhance the previous available concepts and theories. Super computers are used to do special tasks like weather prediction.
Super computers are very fast e.g. it can perform millions of the operations per second. But now modern computers can perform trillions of the operations per second.evolution of computers
1981 – Introduction of IBM PC with MS-DOS Operating System:
In 1981, IBM PC was introduced along with MS-DOS Operating System.
1984 – Apple Macintosh:
In 1984, Apple Macintosh, The first popular user-friendly computer was introduced it was the great event in the history of a computer because in this computer the input was given to the computer by using a mouse. The mouse is navigated to give input to the computer as compared to the previous Personal computers.evolution of computers
1989 – Invention of World Wide Web:
In 1989, WWW (World Wide Web) was invented. It was a great event in the history of a computer that is being used till now even in the mobile phones. It was developed by the Tim Berners Lee British Physicist at the Corn in Geneva. In the next coming lecture, we will discuss WWW in detail.
1997 – Victory of D-Blue Computer by developed by IBM:
In 1997, there was a match between computer D-Blue developed by IBM and a very good player of chess. The computer First time wins that match. How? (D-Blue developers call some chess players and store the billions of the common best instructions in the computer of that game and in this way the computer was analyzing the instruction and compare it to the stored instruction in just 1 or 2 minutes and select the best instruction among them).
The above was the short history or evolution of computers since 1833 to till now…
Visit also Lecture #1 Introduction to Computer and Short History of Computer